For the Billionth Time, Magneto is NOT Malcolm X: Thoughts on Appropriation and Mutants of Color


Spoiler Alert: There are major spoilers ahead for X-Men: Days of Future Past (and all of the other X-Men films).

I never liked the comparisons that significant comic book writers, filmmakers, actors, and even some fans make between Magneto and Malcolm X, as well as between Professor Xavier and Martin Luther King Jr. At the end of the first X-Men film (2000), Magneto delivers the line, “By any means necessary,” one of Malcolm’s most famous quotes. Prior to the release of X-Men: First Class (2011), Michael Fassbender, who plays the younger Magneto/Erik Lehnsherr, stated in an interview that the lives of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr. directly influenced the film and the relationship between Magneto and Charles Xavier. “It came up early on in the rehearsal period and that was the path we took,” Fassbender confirmed.

I ranted about how inaccurate, offensive, and racist these comparisons are on my Facebook wall and then shared a blog post that expressed similar sentiments, “By Any Means” (and later, a more recent post, “Professor X isn’t Martin Luther King, and Magneto isn’t Malcolm X, either”). This would be a conversation I would have with fellow people of color, especially those who are X-Men/comic book fans as well. Despite the serious lack of mutants of color, the frequent racist and sexist representations of people of color (e.g. racist, sexist depictions of Japanese women and men in The Wolverine), and the problematic appropriation of anti-racist and civil rights struggles, I still considered myself an X-Men fan. Like many, I was looking forward to X-Men: Days of Future Past, which was always one of my favorite storylines in the comic books and the acclaimed animated series. While I enjoyed the movie, I could not help but feel annoyed by the way the X-Men films ironically fail to address the issues they claim to be challenging. In fact, Neil Shyminsky argues in his essay “Mutant Readers, Reading Mutants: Appropriation, Assimilation, and the X-Men,” that, “While its stated mission is to promote the acceptance of minorities of all kinds, X-Men has not only failed to adequately redress issues of inequality – it actually reinforces inequality.”  For the record, I don’t expect anything radical from Hollywood (and mainstream comic books), but I also find it upsetting that people of color are always expected to “look past” things like offensive and racist depictions of their communities, and to simply “enjoy the movie” uncritically. Given the powerful influence of media (on society, perceptions, attitudes, social norms, etc.), I don’t think it is meaningless to raise such critiques.

After seeing X-Men: Days of Future Past, I watched a new interview with Michael Fassbender and Ian McKellen (the latter plays Magneto from the original timeline of the series). About 11 minutes into the interview, McKellen drew the parallel between Magneto and Malcolm X yet again. McKellen states:

“In the history of all the civil rights movements, and I’ve been involved in the gay civil rights movement, there’s always a divide, there’s always an argument between how we go about making our lives better. Do you do Professor X’s way, which I rather approve of: standing up for yourself, but explaining yourself, wanting to be part of society. Or do you rather withdraw and get rather violent as, say, a Malcolm X figure would be.”

Fassbender replied in agreement, “Absolutely.”

These comparisons and characterizations of Malcolm X as “violent” are not just wrong and inaccurate, but incredibly offensive and racist. They reinforce a simplistic and harmful binary between Malcolm and MLK Jr. – one that vilifies the former, and de-radicalizes/co-opts the latter. I would also argue that a Christian (MLK Jr.) vs. Muslim (Malcolm X) narrative may also be present here, though perhaps not as pronounced as the “Good Black/Bad Black” binary. I know I should not be surprised by the sheer ignorance and irresponsibility of white actors and filmmakers, but I honestly felt that enough people have spoken out against these analogies that Bryan Singer, Ian McKellen, and Michael Fassbender would adopt a different approach to Magneto. Perhaps I was too optimistic in thinking that Hollywood would learn something for a change.

First, let’s get the obvious out of the way. Professor Xavier and Magneto are both white, not Black. Even if the philosophies of MLK Jr. and Malcolm X aligned accurately with Professor Xavier and Magneto, it’s still racist appropriation. In fact, this is one of the major problems with X-Men: it draws its influence from the civil rights movement in the 1960s, but replaces people of color with mostly white people. In other words, the experiences of people of color and their struggle against racist oppression are appropriated by white and mostly male mutant characters. As argued by Shyminsky, this allows white male audiences to “appropriate the struggles of marginalized peoples.” In his excellent post, “What if the X-Men were Black?” Orion Martin cites an interview with Stan Lee who said the civil rights movement allegory existed from the beginning. “It not only made them different, but it was a good metaphor for what was happening with the civil rights movement in the country at that time,” Lee said. In 1982, long-time X-Men writer Chris Claremont explained, “The X-Men are hated, feared, and despised collectively by humanity for no other reason than that they are mutants. So what we have here, intended or not, is a book that is about racism, bigotry, and prejudice.”

Yet, like many others, I’ve always felt the X-Men films failed in exploring mutant identity/positionality in conjunction with the complex and intersecting dynamics of race, gender, class, religion, sexual orientation, ability, and so on. Instead, the experiences of mutants, irrespective of their race and gender, are depicted within a flawed understanding of “all oppression is the same,” or “shared oppression.” Overlooked are the opportunities to explore how racism, sexism, along with anti-mutant sentiment, impacted mutant women of color differently than white male mutants, for instance. Or, what would the experiences of a Muslim mutant character look like in a hostile climate of anti-mutant oppression and Islamophobia within a white supremacist, capitalist, heteropatriarchal society? As Martin writes:

What’s disturbing about the series is that is that all of these issues are played out by a cast of characters dominated by wealthy, straight, cisgender, Christian, able-bodied, white men. The X-Men are the victims of discrimination for their mutant identity, with little or no mention of the huge privileges they enjoy.

One of the major criticisms of X-Men: First Class was its glaring omission of the civil rights movement and how, as Seth Freed Wessler stated, the “racial justice allegory was thrown out with the bathwater of history.” Ta-Nehisi Coates noted that the film takes place in 1962, the same year when South Carolina “marked the Civil War centennial by returning the Confederate Flag to the State Capitol” and the year when “the University of Mississippi greeted its first black student, James Meredith, with a lethal race riot.” He argued that the film “appeals to an insidious suspension of disbelief; the heroic mutants of America, bravely opposing bigotry and fear, are revealed as not so much a spectrum of humankind, but as Eagle Scouts from Mayfield.” Furthermore, he described the film as a “period piece for our postracial times — in the era of Ella Baker and the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., the most powerful adversaries of spectacular apartheid are a team of enlightened white dudes.” And we all remember what happened to Darwin and how he was the first mutant to be killed (and the racist editing just made it worse). Despite the fact Sebastian Shaw tells Emma Frost earlier in the film that “we don’t hurt our own kind,” what he really meant was, “we don’t hurt our own kind unless its a Black mutant.”

X-Men: Days of Future Past doesn’t improve much in this regard. The mutants I was excited to see, namely Bishop, Blink, Warpath, and Sunspot (all characters of color) had some excellent action scenes, but very limited dialogue and screentime. Oh, and THEY ALL DIE. BRUTALLY. Some of them DIE TWICE (once at the beginning of the film and once at the end). Yes, by the end of the film, the dystopian future is prevented and the timeline is fixed, which means these mutants are now alive again, but the only mutant of color that we see at the end is Storm. Bishop, Blink, Warpath, and Sunspot are alive, but they were nowhere to be found and this on-screen absence is significant. I know they’re not part of the X-Men (they were part of Bishop’s Free Mutants Resistance Force in the future), but there are ways the filmmakers could have shown them (that is, if they really cared for these characters). Also, I’m aware that Iceman and Colossus were also killed viciously by the Sentinels, but the majority of the mutant characters killed off were people of color, including Storm. Some may argue, “No, they died honorably,” or, “They were selfless heroes because of their sacrifice,” but how often do we see this pattern in the way people of color are depicted? What this boils down to is, people of color need to die so that the white heroes can fix things in the past and save the whole world. Because it’s always up to white men to save humanity.

Ok, I’m getting off track. My second point: Magneto is not Malcolm X because the former murders people and the latter did not. It is ironic that Ian McKellen believes it is “simplistic” to label Magneto a “villain,” yet he resorts to a simplistic and incorrect understanding of Malcolm X. I am not an advocate of “non-violent” resistance, but when McKellen refers to Malcolm as a “violent” figure, I wonder if anyone bothered to ask him to name a time when Malcolm was violent. Malcolm X advocated for self-defense, which is extremely different than the ruthless violence Magneto carries out.  It seems obvious that neither McKellen nor Fassbender bothered to read Malcolm’s autobiography (Fassbender admits he “didn’t study any Malcolm X videos” for the role).

In one of the aforementioned posts, David Brothers calls the likening of Magneto to Malcolm “both disrespectful and part of the ongoing demonization of Malcolm X.” The latter statement especially rings true because it was only one semester ago when I heard a professor pit Malcolm X against Martin Luther King Jr., relying on the same dichotomy that depicts the former as “violent,” “anti-white/reverse racist” and the latter as the “peaceful” one. Brothers continues:

Magneto is a charismatic man who talks a good game, but won’t hesitate to kill a gang of people if it suits his purposes. This is the Malcolm X figure in Marvel Comics? A killer? That isn’t what “By any means necessary” is about… It isn’t as simple as Malcolm X bad, Martin Luther King good. That’s a false dichotomy that is practically taught in schools nowadays. It’s untrue. Magneto is Magneto. He is a killer, sometimes a sympathetic one, but a killer nonetheless.

In his 2013 post, Brothers elaborates further and argues that “America likes to place them [Malcolm X and MLK Jr.] in conflict with each other” while ignoring how “the truth was much more nuanced.” He also explains why Professor Xavier is not MLK Jr. either:

Professor X drafted children into a paramilitary unit under the guise of educating them, and then sent them out to fight other mutants. They’re essentially a self-police force for the mutant people… Magneto is the other side of the fence. Where Xavier wants mutants to coexist with humans, Magneto is a mutant supremacist and terrorist. He murders humans, he brutalizes mutants, and anyone who stands in his way is found wanting and considered a traitor. Magneto is a murderer with ideals, when you boil it down.

Neither character bears any resemblance to Martin or Malcolm, outside of a short-sighted and frankly ignorant idea of what Martin or Malcolm represent. People have said it, but that doesn’t make it true.

Lastly, it needs to be understood that these comparisons are harmful. In addition to demonizing Malcolm X and de-radicalizing MLK Jr., the binary maintains racist thinking that attempts to divide African-Americans into two, simplistic categories. It distorts history and insults the legacy of both Malcolm X and MLK Jr. Claiming that two super-powered white men are stand-ins for two civil rights leaders fighting for the liberation of Black people and then appropriating and exploiting their struggles does the opposite of challenging oppression. In films where men and women of color characters are marginalized, and where the realities of racism, sexism, homophobia, Islamophobia, etc. are never given mention, these forces might as well not exist in the world the characters inhabit. As a result, this erasure perpetuates a harmful “colorblind” and “post-racial” myth. If there is any analogy to draw, it is that simplistic binaries of “good mutants” versus “evil mutants” (attempts to make the latter mutants more “complex” notwithstanding) are analogues to the workings of white supremacy which oppressively categorizes people of color as either being in the “good camp” or the “bad camp.”

On February 16th, 1965, five days before El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, or Malcolm X, was assassinated, he made a speech about the way media vilifies those who resist against racism. Below is an excerpt from his speech, which is so relevant today that it could even apply here – to the people who keep insisting that Malcolm was a “violent” figure and “like Magneto”:

“We’re against those who practice racism. Racism which involves a war against the dark-skinned people in Asia, another form of racism involving a war against the dark-skinned people in the Congo, the same as it involves a war against the dark-skinned people in Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and Rochester, New York. They accuse us of what they themselves are guilty of. This is what the criminal always does. He’ll bomb you, then accuse you of bombing yourself. He’ll crush your skull, and then accuse you of attacking him. This is what the racists have always done. He’ll practice his criminal action, and then use the press to make it look like the victim is the criminal, and the criminal is the victim.”

Where is the “violence” that McKellen spoke of?  If anything, McKellen falls into the same racist logic used to demonize Malcolm. The enormous lack of respect for leaders like Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr. is apparent in the way white filmmakers and writers attempt to transform these individuals into fictional white super-powered characters where one is labeled a “hero” and the other, a “villain.” In a film series where white characters dominate screen-time, what does it mean when the filmmakers and actors insist on drawing false parallels to Malcolm X and MLK Jr. while they promote these films? What message are they promoting? The films are often applauded by mainstream movie critics as offering important lessons on racism and prejudice, but who gets to “teach” these lessons? The stories may be influenced by anti-racist struggle, but, as usual, white characters lead the way in these films.

Filmmakers, actors, comic book writers, and fans need to stop making these comparisons. If you want to learn about Malcolm X, don’t read about Magneto. Read Malcolm’s autobiography and stop likening him to a fictional white mutant supremacist created by white men.

27 thoughts on “For the Billionth Time, Magneto is NOT Malcolm X: Thoughts on Appropriation and Mutants of Color

  1. *le sigh* Can’t really expect much else from Hollywood.

    I wasn’t that excited to see X-Men: Days of Future Past, like you, I was annoyed how they killed off the mutants of color. That’s another issue with the X-Men movie franchise, the way mutants of color are weakened. Darwin and Storm are perfect examples of this. Darwin, has the power to evolve and to adapt, there’s a possibility he could evolve into a god-like figure, but instead he’s quickly killed off. Same with Storm in Days of Future Past, she’s a powerful mutant, possibly an Omega level one, but once again, she’s killed off.

    Anywho, I totally agree with you. Likening Professor X and Magneto to Martin Luther King Jr and Malcolm X is nothing short of insulting. These were nothing but White people’s watered down inaccurate interpretation of who these men were. I guess for them, Black people defending themselves is “promoting violence.” Not to mention how Martin Luther King Jr has been reduced to his “I Have A Dream” speech. To this day, whenever I speak to some white people about him, all they know of him is that one speech. They have no clue about his views on capitalism, racism, and America’s foreign policy. If more of them actually took the time to dig deeper, they would discover he was much more radical in his views.

    1. RenKiss,

      Thank you for commenting, as always! I know, I completely agree with you about Darwin and Storm. I was hoping Storm would have a bigger role, but after I saw the trailer (where a Sentinel jumps up behind her), I had a feeling that she wasn’t going to have much of a role. Not surprising, I guess.

      Yeah, I’ve heard far too many people reduce Martin Luther King Jr. to his “I Have A Dream” speech. As you said, they don’t know about his radical politics and many would rather refuse to acknowledge it.

      I shared this post on my Facebook and I was accused of “discriminating against” white readers because I advocate centering stories on people of color. Right, because there are so many people of color-centered stories/movies/comic books that make so many white people feel “left out.” Sigh.

  2. The people who call Malcolm X violent are always the people who never read any of his works or listened to any of his interviews or speeches. The truth is the man never committed a violent act. Plus, I love how white folks make out like black people are more violent, when its so obvious that the reverse is true. Look at the ways whites violently enslaved blacks for centuries with the kidnappings, lashings, and rapings. Then look at all the lynchings and KKK attacks. Its not just a stereotype that whites are more violent, it seems to be true! Even today you got white folks killing black folks all over the country (Trayvon Martin, Renisha McBride, Jordan Davis, etc.), so Malcolm X advocating for Black defense isn’t exactly crazy.

    1. Thirtymile,

      Yes, great points! I completely agree with you! When McKellen describes Malcolm as a “violent” figure, someone should tell him about the violence that white people and the KKK were carrying out (and still are carrying out). As you mentioned, we still see white people killing Black people in the U.S. McKellen and people who think like him should think more about that than demonize a man who was NEVER violent.

    1. Hey, uhh, this is like the third time you’ve tried to comment on my blog and it’s getting kinda creepy and stalkerish. I deleted the other ones because you were defending “The Siege” – one of the most Islamophobic movies ever made. And then you’re defending “24” in another comment. Tokenism doesn’t make a movie less racist or less Islamophobia. I hope you’re aware of that. Also, I choose not to engage with people who are going to be defending Islamophobic TV shows and behave like they know what Islamophobia is better than Muslims themselves. Read my post on why I choose to maintain safe space on this blog. Have you ever watched any films about Muslims that are outside the context of terrorism and Orientalist stereotypes? Reflect on that, too.

      What you’re saying about Malcolm X is “reverse racist” nonsense. Google up on how “reverse racism” is a myth. KTHANKSBYE.

  3. Malcolm’s autobiography should certainly be read, but it is not the be all and end all of understanding his philosophy. His philosophy of the need for Blacks to defend themselves is barely mentioned. I’m pretty sure the phrase, “By any means necessary” doesn’t even appear in the book.

    The book was started when Malcolm was parroting the words of Elijah Muhammad and it was finished when Malcolm was speaking for himself. This causes the book to have sections where Malcolm is praising events and ideas that he would later not really support. To fully understand Malcolm the Autobiography is a great starting point, but its crucial to read some of his later speeches for a more complete understanding. I’m glad you took the time to quote one of these in your article.

  4. Agree with your points on how magneto and prof x would be inaccurate depictions of Malcolm and MLK. But Stan lee verified that those were his inspirations for those characters. Interesting nonetheless. Thanks

  5. Speaking as a white woman who really never got into comics, I have to admit ignorance on this topic. However, it really opened my eyes as to just how “white” and self serving Hollywood is. I mean, I always knew it but this just seems like a new low. Some people ( like I did initially) may say this article is ranting about a silly movie but the more I read… seriously…X-Men? To compare yourself to the civil rights movement when you are wealthy, white, males playing pretend? It seems arrogant and self serving to throw that in there…like “Hey we’re not just representing a comic book, We reflect the civil rights movement.” Umm….No you don’t! It’s safe to say you don’t have the first clue of the pain and suffering that was endured. What it means and what it takes to stand up and defend your right to be human and treated as such. Don’t think you can put on a costume and then assume the voice of a time your own race (yeah you, white actor) should be ashamed of. Great article! I learned something new. Smiley sent me here. Glad he re-blogged! 🙂

    1. Thank you for reading and commenting! I’m glad you found this article informative and, yes, I completely agree that this kind of appropriation is arrogant and self-serving. Thanks again! 🙂

      1. Not to be meaninglessly negative, but no where in any comics is Islam mentioned as her religion. She makes frequent references to “goddess” and her background is living with tribal people in Africa who worshipped her as a god.

        I always found storm to be incredibly pandering and stereotype propagating character. She is the only character who was surrounded by people in modern times who were so ignorant they thought her a god. That just reaks of racism. No white character or non-black character ever bowed down and prayed to a mutant in modern times. In fact, it’s they white and western folks who are “smart” enough to understand what a mutant is and the ignorant blacks who think one must be a god……..

  6. You’re welcome! I grew up watching X-men as a comic on tv and watched almost all the movies, so I know quite a lot of X-men trivia. I still think that the idea was brilliant and creative. Later on, I heard that the X-men story was meant as an implicit critique of how African-Americans were treated. (I remember that you also wrote about that, will check it out) As a black woman, that resonates with me, and so do black characters and parts in films that are NOT cliche.

  7. I have always longed for an X-men origins film about Storm. It would be so fascinating to explore her Nubian-Egyptian roots, the way she practices Islam, Nubia itself, the Aswan dam, how she dealt with anti-black racism, both in Northern Egypt and the U.S. (Yes, I admit: She was and is my favorite character, followed by Jean Grey and Wolverine) Imagine how amazingly powerfull that would be! A story about an African American/Nubian Egyptian/black Muslimah, her life in Aswan, Cairo and beyond….

  8. Well, Sean, good that you mention this.

    I always assumed she was Muslim, for the following reasons. I read (or heard) that Professor X. met her when she was a street child in Cairo. She was black, so I assumed she was Nubian, and since Egypt is a Muslim majority country and there are barely any Coptic Nubians anymore, I also assumed she was Muslim. Ofcourse, she could have been from another, neighbouring country, from which many black people in Cairo hail: Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, maybe Somalia, etc.

    About the stereotyping: It was only yesterday that I bumped into her biography on Wikipedia. And that biography indeed tells what you already said, and about all the stereotypes against black Africans, about them worshipping her as a goddess, about some fantasy religion which consisted of a mish-mash of African religions. (Not to be disrespectful about any authentic indigenous African religion. But those Marvel guys clearly knew next to nothing about African religions)

    Here is the link to her biography:

    And yes, here are some quotes that confirm your point: “For a time, she is worshiped as a rain goddess to an African tribe, practicing nudism and tribal spirituality, before being recruited by Professor X into the X-Men. Ororo receives the code name “Storm” and is established as a strong, serene character.”

    “In Uncanny X-Men #102 (December 1976), Claremont established Storm’s backstory. Storm’s mother, N’Dare, was the princess of a tribe in Kenya and descended from a long line of African witch-priestesses with white hair, blue eyes, and a natural gift for sorcery. N’Dare falls in love with and marries American photojournalist David Munroe. They move to Harlem in uptown New York City, where Ororo is born. They later moved to Egypt and lived there until they die during the Suez Crisis in a botched aircraft attack, leaving six-year-old Ororo as an orphan. Her violent claustrophobia is established as a result of being buried under tons of rubble after that attack. She becomes a skilled thief in Cairo under the benign Achmed el-Gibar and wanders into the Serengeti as a young woman. She is worshipped as a goddess when her powers appear before being recruited by Professor X for the X-Men.”

    I didn’t know any of the original backstory as explained on Wiki, because I got to know X-men not from the original comic books, but from comics on television, who were made, and aired in the nineties and were clearly adapted to be less overtly racist.

    However, she was my favorite character because I saw in her a strong fellow black woman with amazing powers. (Who wouldn’t want to be able to fly, and control the weather?)

    And since it’s all fantasy, and the whole backstory about Kenya and African spirituality wasn’t correct to begin with, I don’t see any problem in (re)-imagining her as a Nubian-Egyptian Muslim woman. 🙂

  9. This is a great article, thank you so much! As a fellow Marvel fan of color, I have wondered a lot about this comparison. I think you really hit it on the nail. Thank you!

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